Gretel Navigator Fine Tuning

LLM-based AI system supporting tabular, time-series, JSON, and natural language text data.

Gretel Navigator Fine Tuning (navigator_ft) is an AI system combining a Large-Language Model pre-trained specifically on tabular datasets with learned schema based rules. It can train on datasets of various sizes (we recommend 10,000 or more records) and generate synthetic datasets with unlimited records.

navigator_ft excels at matching the correlations (both within a single record and across multiple records) and distributions in its training data across multiple tabular modalities, including numeric, categorical, free text, JSON, and time series values.

Model creation

The config below shows all the available training and generation parameters for Navigator Fine Tuning. Leaving all parameters unspecified (we will use defaults) is a good starting point for training on datasets with independent records, while the group_training_examples_by parameter is required to capture correlations across records within a group. The order_training_records_by parameter is strongly recommended if records within a group follow a logical order, as is the case for time series or sequential events.

For example, to generate realistic stock prices in the dow_jones_index dataset, we would set group_training_examples_by to "stock" and order_training_records_by to "date". This ensures that correlations within each stock ticker are maintained across multiple days, and the daily price and volume fluctuations are reasonable.

schema_version: "1.0"
name: "navigator_ft"
  - navigator_ft:
      data_source: __tmp__
      # Optionally group records by the column(s) set below.
      # This is useful if you need to maintain correlations  
      # across multiple records. Otherwise, the model training 
      # assumes the records are independent.
      group_training_examples_by: null
      # Optionally order records by the column set below.
      # This is useful if your records are sequential.
      # Note that this parameter can only be used when 
      # your records are grouped using the above parameter.
      order_training_examples_by: null
        # The parameter below is a proxy for training
        # time. It sets the number of records from the 
        # input dataset that the model will see during 
        # training. It can be smaller (we downsample), 
        # larger (we resample), or the same size as 
        # your input dataset.
        num_input_records_to_sample: 25000
        batch_size: 1
        gradient_accumulation_steps: 8
        learning_rate: 0.0005
        lr_scheduler: cosine
        warmup_ratio: 0.05
        weight_decay: 0.01
        lora_alpha_over_r: 1
        lora_r: 32
        lora_target_modules: [q_proj, k_proj, v_proj, o_proj]
        rope_scaling_factor: 1        
        num_records: 5000
        temperature: 0.75
        repetition_penalty: 1.2      
        top_p: 1.0
        stop_params: null

Parameter descriptions

  • data_source (str, required) - __tmp__ or point to a valid and accessible file in CSV, JSONL, or Parquet format.

  • group_training_examples_by (str or list of str, optional) - Column(s) to group training examples by. This is useful when you want the model to learn inter-record correlations for a given grouping of records.

  • order_training_examples_by (str, optional) - Column to order training examples by. This is useful when you want the model to learn sequential relationships for a given ordering of records. If you provide this parameter, you must also provide group_training_examples_by.

  • params - Parameters that control the model training process:

    • num_input_records_to_sample (int, required, defaults to 25_000) - This parameter is a proxy for training time. It sets the number of records from the input dataset that the model will see during training. It can be smaller (we downsample), larger (we resample), or the same size as your input dataset. Setting this to the same size as your input dataset is effectively equivalent to training for a single epoch.

    • batch_size (int, required, defaults to 1) - The batch size per device for training.

    • gradient_accumulation_steps (int, required, defaults to 8) - Number of update steps to accumulate the gradients for, before performing a backward/update pass. This technique increases the effective batch size that will fit into GPU memory.

    • learning_rate (float, required, defaults to 0.0005) - The initial learning rate for AdamW optimizer.

    • lr_scheduler (str, required, defaults to cosine) - The scheduler type to use. See the HuggingFace documentation of SchedulerType for all possible values.

    • warmup_ratio (float, required, defaults to 0.05) - Ratio of total training steps used for a linear warmup from 0 to the learning rate.

    • weight_decay (float, required, defaults to 0.01) - The weight decay to apply (if not zero) to all layers except all bias and LayerNorm weights in the AdamW optimizer.

    • lora_alpha_over_r (float, required, defaults to 1.0) - The ratio of the LoRA scaling factor (alpha) to the LoRA rank. Empirically, this parameter works well when set to 0.5, 1, or 2.

    • lora_r (int, required, defaults to 32) - The rank of the LoRA update matrices, expressed in int. Lower rank results in smaller update matrices with fewer trainable parameters.

    • lora_target_modules (list of str, required, defaults to ["q_proj", "k_proj", "v_proj", "o_proj"]) - The list of transformer modules to apply LoRA to. Possible modules: 'q_proj', 'k_proj', 'v_proj', 'o_proj', 'gate_proj', 'up_proj', 'down_proj'.

    • rope_scaling_factor (int, required, defaults to 1) - Scale the base LLM's context length by this factor using RoPE scaling to handle datasets with more columns, or datasets containing groups with more than a few records.

  • generate - Parameters that control model inference:

    • num_records (int, required, defaults to 5000) - Number of records to generate. If you want to generate more than 50_000 records, we recommend breaking the generation job into smaller batches, which you can run in parallel.

    • temperature (float, required, defaults to 0.75) - The value used to control the randomness of the generated data. Higher values make the data more random.

    • repetition_penalty (float, required, defaults to 1.2) - The value used to control the likelihood of the model repeating the same token.

    • top_p (float, required, defaults to 1.0) - The cumulative probability cutoff for sampling tokens.

    • stop_params (optional) - Optional mechanism to stop generation if too many invalid records are being created. This helps guard against extremely long generation jobs that likely do not have the potential to generate high-quality data. To turn this parameter on, you must set two parameters:

      • invalid_record_fraction (float, required) - The fraction of invalid records generated by the model that will stop generation after the patience limit is reached.

      • patience (int, required) - Number of consecutive generations where the invalid_record_fraction is reached before stopping generation.

Minimum requirements

If running this system in hybrid mode, the following instance specifications are recommended:

CPU: Minimum 4 cores, 32GB RAM.

GPU (Required): Minimum Nvidia A10G, L4, RTX4090 or better CUDA compliant GPU with 24GB+ RAM and Ada or newer architecture. For faster training and generation speeds and/or rope_scaling_factor values above 2, we recommend GPUs with 40+GB RAM such as NVIDIA A100 or H100.

Limitations and Biases

  1. During the public preview, the default context length for the underlying model in Navigator Fine Tuning can handle datasets with roughly 50 columns (less if modeling inter-row correlations using group_training_examples_by). To go beyond that, increase rope_scaling_factor and ensure you have sufficient GPU RAM.

  2. Pre-trained models such as the underlying model in Navigator Fine Tuning may produce untrue and/or offensive content without warning. We recommend having a human curate or filter the outputs before releasing them, both to censor undesirable content and to improve the quality of the results.

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